HERE is all the coronation regalia being used at the crowning of the King and Queen Consort. The sacred, priceless objects are part of the Crown Jewels – the nation’s most precious treasures – which are held in trust by the King for the country and kept under armed guard in the Tower of London.

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Two ceremonial maces

Maces – based on medieval weapons – are used in royal processions to symbolise royal authority and will be carried before the sovereign on his way to Westminster Abbey.

They are club-like, topped with crown arches and made of silver gilt over oak.

They date between 1660 and 1695, and are also used at the State Opening of Parliament.

St Edward’s Staff

St Edward’s Staff, also known as the Long Sceptre, has a pike of steel at the bottom and is carried as part of the procession into the abbey.

Most of the original ancient coronation regalia was destroyed by Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil and remade during the reign of Charles II, including the staff which was a relic associated with Edward the Confessor.

Charles Farris, public historian at Historic Royal Palaces, said the staff’s former use was unknown so a new one was nearly not produced in 1661.

“But Charles II said ‘No. I want the full set’ and it was made even though no one quite knew what it was for,” he said.

Swords of Temporal Justice, Spiritual Justice and Mercy

The practice of carrying three swords, representing kingly virtues, dates back to the coronation of Richard the Lionheart in 1189.

The Sword of Temporal Justice signifies the monarch’s role as Head of the Armed Forces, the Sword of Spiritual Justice symbolises the King as Defender of the Faith, and the Sword of Mercy, also known as the Curtana, has a blunted tip to symbolise the sovereign’s mercy.

They are carried pointing upwards, unsheathed without their scabbards, in the coronation procession in the abbey.

Together with the coronation spoon, the three swords – which date from the reign of Charles I – were the only pieces of the coronation regalia to survive the Civil War.

Sword of State

The 17th-century Sword of State is carried in procession to the abbey.

Its silver-gilt hilt features the form of a lion and unicorn and the wooden scabbard is covered in red velvet with silver-gilt rose, thistle and fleur-de-lis emblems.

It is also carried during the State Opening of Parliament.



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The anointing of the King with holy oil is the most sacred part of the ceremony. The gold Ampulla is shaped in the form of an eagle with outspread wings and is used to hold the consecrated oil.

There is an opening in the beak for pouring the oil onto the Coronation Spoon. It is based on an earlier smaller vessel which took inspiration from a 14th-century legend saying the Virgin Mary appeared to St Thomas Becket in a dream and presented him with a golden eagle and a vial of oil for anointing future kings of England.

Coronation Spoon

The Northern Echo: Images may be used only for editorial news coverage between April 10 and May 6 2023 and are not to be archived, sold on to third parties or used out of context. Undated handout photo issued by Royal Collection Trust of the Coronation spoon. The

The 12th Century spoon is considered the “most humble” but the oldest object in the Crown Jewels. The blessed oil is poured into the bowl or head of the spoon to allow the Archbishop to dip his fingers into it. He will anoint the King, hidden under a canopy, with the sign of the cross on his hand, his breast and his head, and then later anoint Camilla.

The Coronation Spoon survived Parliament’s destruction of the Crown Jewels in 1649 because it was bought by a royal servant in a sale of the executed Charles I’s goods and later returned to Charles II.

Made of silver gilt, it has an oval bowl which is engraved with acanthus scrolls and divided into two lobes – allowing enough space for two fingers to be used for dipping.

Its stem features two stylised monsters’ heads, pearls and interlaced scrolling.


The investiture part of the coronation is when the King is given all the symbolic objects representing his powers and responsibilities. It stems from medieval times when coronation ceremonies were in Latin, with the symbols ensuring those in the audience who could not speak Latin could interpret their meaning.

Golden Spurs

The Northern Echo: File photo dated 25/11/52 of The Orb, The Spurs and The Sovereign's Ring. The Spurs are also known as St. George's Spurs. The priceless Crown Jewels - the nation's most precious treasures - will play a starring role at the coronation of King

The orb and the golden spurs

Each of the gold spurs features a Tudor rose and velvet-covered strap with gold embroidery. Traditionally, the spurs were fastened to the sovereign’s feet during a coronation but are now simply held briefly to the ankles of kings or presented to a queen for her to touch, and then placed on the altar. They were made for Charles II and symbolise knighthood and chivalry.

Sword of Offering

The intricate tapered sword, made for George IV’s 1821 coronation, has a hilt encrusted with diamonds, rubies and emeralds and a scabbard decorated with jewelled roses, thistles and shamrocks.

During the service, it is presented to the monarch, who carries it to be placed on the altar.

One of the peers traditionally offers the price of 100 silver shillings for the sword. The peer then draws the sword and carries it in its “naked” form – without its scabbard – before the monarch for the rest of the service.

It symbolises royal power and the monarch accepting his duty and knightly virtues.


Golden armlets – known as Armills – are placed on the sovereign’s wrists. They are known as the “bracelets of sincerity and wisdom” and are thought to relate to ancient symbols of knighthood and military leadership.

New armills were prepared for the coronation of Elizabeth II as a gift from the Commonwealth, replacing the previous pair, which had been used since 1661.

But the King will use the original pair last used by his grandfather, George VI.

They are decorated with national emblems – roses, thistles, fleurs-de-lis and harps – dark blue fleurets and red pellets, and lined in red velvet.

Sovereign’s Orb

The Sovereign’s Orb, with its cross mounted on a golden globe, symbolises that the monarch’s power is derived from God. It is decorated with clusters of emeralds, rubies and sapphires surrounded by rose-cut diamonds, and single rows of pearls, with the bands of jewels dividing it into three sections representing the three continents known in medieval times.

During the coronation service, the Orb – which weighs 1.3kg and dates back to 1661 – is placed in the monarch’s right hand. It is then put on the altar before the moment of crowning.

Sovereign’s Ring

Known as the “Wedding Ring of England”, the Sovereign’s Ring – also called the Coronation Ring – is a symbol of “kingly dignity”. It is placed on the fourth finger of the monarch’s right hand by the Archbishop of Canterbury.

A new ring used to be made for each king or queen, but for nearly 200 years monarchs have used William IV’s 1831 ring – except for Queen Victoria whose fingers were too small so she had a new one made.

William IV’s ring features a large sapphire and diamond cluster with baguette-cut rubies in the form of a cross. The rubies represent the cross of the patron saint of England St George and the sapphire is said to represent the Scottish flag.

Sovereign’s Sceptre with the Cross

The Sovereign’s Sceptre with Cross has been used at every coronation since Charles II’s in 1661. It is the symbol of royal earthly power and is placed in the monarch’s right hand for the crowning.

The sceptre was transformed in 1910 for George V with the addition of the spectacular Cullinan I diamond – 530.2 carats and the largest colourless cut diamond in the world.

Sovereign’s Sceptre with Dove

This sceptre is symbolic of justice and mercy and is placed in the monarch’s left hand for the crowning. It represents the sovereign’s spiritual role, with the dove symbolising the Holy Ghost, and traditionally has also been called the Rod of Equity and Mercy.

Made from gold, it is decorated with enamelled and gem-set collars at three intersections, surmounted by a gold monde, with an applied silver zone and arc set with rose diamonds, and a gold cross supporting an enamelled dove with outspread wings.

St Edward’s Crown – The Coronation Crown

The Northern Echo: Images may be used only for editorial news coverage between April 10 and May 6 2023 and are not to be archived, sold on to third parties or used out of context. Undated handout photo issued by Royal Collection Trust of the St Edward's Crown, which is

The St Edward’s Crown is used at the moment of coronation. Weighing 2.23kg (nearly 5lb), it is the heaviest crown in the Crown Jewels.

It has a solid gold frame and is set with tourmalines, white and yellow topazes, rubies, amethysts, sapphires, garnet, peridot, zircons, spinel and aquamarines, step-cut and rose-cut and mounted in enamelled gold collets, and has a purple velvet cap with an ermine band.

The crown was made for the coronation of Charles II in 1661 and was a replacement for the medieval crown, which was melted down on the orders of Oliver Cromwell in 1649 after the execution of Charles I.

The original was thought to date back to the 11th Century royal saint, Edward the Confessor, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.

Although it is not an exact replica of the medieval design, it follows the original in having four crosses pattee, four fleurs-de-lis and two arches.

It is St Edward’s Crown that appears in the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, the Royal Mail logo and in badges of the Armed Forces.

Such was its weight, the late Queen practised wearing it around Buckingham Palace ahead of her coronation to ensure she could move with it on her head.

Under a top secret operation, the crown was briefly removed from the Tower of London to be resized to fit the King’s head.


The Queen Consort’s Ring

The ruby ring was made for the Coronation of King William IV for his consort Queen Adelaide in 1831. It will be put on the fourth finger of Camilla’s right hand.

It has been used by three further Queens Consort; Queen Alexandra, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.

Made of extended octagonal mixed-cut ruby, it has a gold setting, unbacked, within a border of 14 cushion-shaped brilliant diamonds.

Queen Mary’s Crown

The Northern Echo: Images may be used only for editorial news coverage between April 10 and May 6 2023 and are not to be archived, sold on to third parties or used out of context. Undated handout photo issued by Royal Collection Trust of Queen Mary's Crown. The Queen

Camilla has chosen to be crowned in the crown made for Charles’s great-grandmother Queen Mary for George V’s coronation in 1911. It is the first time a consort’s crown has been recycled for a coronation rather than a new one created and could potentially be renamed Queen Camilla’s Crown in the future.

It used to feature the controversial Koh-i-noor diamond but this will not be used and the crown is being altered to include the Cullinan III, IV and V diamonds – from Elizabeth II’s personal jewellery collection.

The Queen Consort’s Sceptre with Cross

Camilla will hold the gold rod in her right hand after being crowned.

It is surmounted by a monde with a zone and arc of moulded gold set with table-cut quartzes, with a cross above mounted with rose-cut and shaped quartzes. It represents temporal power and was originally made for the coronation of Mary of Modena, Queen Consort of James II, in 1685.

The Queen Consort’s Rod with Dove

The controversial rod is made of ivory and Camilla will hold it with her left hand after being crowned, despite the Prince of Wales’s campaign against the trade in ivory. It symbolises equity and mercy and the dove, with its folded wings, represents the Holy Ghost. It was also made for Mary of Modena.


Imperial State Crown

The Northern Echo: Images may be used only for editorial news coverage between April 10 and May 6 2023 and are not to be archived, sold on to third parties or used out of context. Undated handout photo issued by Royal Collection Trust of the Imperial State Crown. King

The King will switch from the St Edward’s Crown into the lighter Imperial Crown before he processes out of the abbey at the end of the service.

It will be the first time he has worn the famous symbol of the monarchy – which is used at State Openings of Parliament – in public.

It is known as a working crown and was also removed from the Tower of London to be resized for Charles.

It was originally made for the coronation of his grandfather George VI in 1937 and contains 2,868 diamonds, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds, four rubies and 269 pearls and weighs over a kilogram.

Among its jewels is the Black Prince’s Ruby – one the late Queen’s favourite gems, as well as the Cullinan II diamond and a large oval sapphire known as the Stuart Sapphire.

The Northern Echo: File photo dated 02/06/53 of a screen shot of Queen Elizabeth II wears St Edward's Crown, at the Coronation ceremony at Westminster Abbey. This was the view as seen by television viewers immediately after the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Geoffrey

Queen Elizabeth II wears St Edward's Crown, at the Coronation ceremony at Westminster Abbey